|06-26-2012, 12:05 AM||#1|
:: كاتبة ألماسيّـة ::
Defining Clauses The most common relative pronouns are who/whom, whoever/whomever, whose, that,and which. (Please note that in certain situations, "what," "when," and "where" can -- # وصلة ممنوعة 1778 # -- as relative pronouns.) Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses, which are a type of dependent clause. Relative clauses modify a word, phrase, or idea in the main clause. The word, phrase, or idea modified is called the antecedent. In the following examples, thatand whom modify the subject:
The house that Jack built is large.
The professor, whom I respect, recently received tenure.
The type of clause determines what kind of relative pronoun to use. Generally, there are two types of relative clauses: restrictive (defining) clause and non-restrictive (non-defining) clause. In both types of clauses, the relative pronoun can -- # وصلة ممنوعة 1778 # -- as a subject, an , or a possessive pronoun ("whose").
Relative Pronouns in Restrictive Relative Clauses
Relative pronouns that introduce a restrictive relative clause ARE NOT separated from the main clause by a comma. Restrictive relative clauses (also known as defining relative clauses) add essential information about the antecedent in the main clause. The information is crucial for understanding the sentence's meaning correctly and cannot be omitted. In other words, without the restrictive relative clause, the sentence does not make sense.
The table below sums up the use of relative pronouns in restrictive relative clauses:
-- # وصلة ممنوعة 1778 # -- in
the sentence Reference to People Things / concepts Place Time Explanation Subject who, that which, that (that, who, whom)* (which, that)* where when what/why Possessive whose whose, of which Examples
Relative pronouns used as a subject of a restrictive relative clause:
This is the house that had a great Christmas decoration.
It took me a while to get used to people who eat popcorn during the movie.
Relative pronouns used as an in a restrictive relative clause:
1) As can be seen from the table, referring to a person or thing, the relative pronoun may be omitted in the position, but formal English includes the relative pronoun. When the relative pronoun is the of a preposition, which is used instead of that, for example, "in which," "for which," "about which," "through which," etc. (please see the third example below):
Formal English: This is the man to whom I wanted to speak and whose name I had forgotten.
Informal English: This is the man I wanted to speak to and whose name I'd forgotten.
Formal English: The library did not have the book that I wanted.
Informal English: The library didn't have the book I wanted.
Formal English: This is the house where/in which I lived when I first came to the United States.
Informal English: This is the house I lived in when I first came to the United States.
2) In American English, the word whom is not used very often. "Whom" is more formal than "who" and is very often omitted while speaking:
Grammatically Correct: The woman to whom you have just spoken is my teacher.
Conversational Use: The woman you have just spoken to is my teacher.
The woman who you have just spoken to is my teacher.
However, "whom" may not be omitted if preceded by a preposition because the relative pronoun -- # وصلة ممنوعة 1778 # --s as the of the pre
The visitor for whom you were waiting has arrived.
Relative pronouns used as a possessive in a restrictive relative clause:
Whose is the only possessive relative pronoun in English. The antecedent of "whose" can be both people and things:
The family whose house burnt in the fire was immediately given a complimentary suite in a hotel.
The book whose author won a Pulitzer has become a bestseller.
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