|07-06-2012, 11:08 PM||#1|
:: كاتبة ألماسيّـة ::
Parts of speech
Parts of speech
To know for sure what part of speech a word is , we have to look not only at the word itself but also at its meaning ,position, and use in a sentence.
A nouns is a word used to refer to people, animals ,s, substances, states, events and feelings. Nouns can be a subject or an of a verb ,
Can be modified by an adjective , can take an article or determiner , and follow a preposition.
A white house
Affixes :- Derivational
English nouns often take suffixes ( attached in the end ) .
Ment ( ment) , ation ( expectation) , hood ( neighborhood) , ism ( socialism)
:- Noun Plurals
The general rule is to add ( s ) to the noun in singular . for
Book – Books
Car – Cars
*When the singular noun ends in :- ( sh , ch , s , x , o ) we form their plural from by adding ( es ). For
sandwich – sandwiches
brush – brushes
bus – buses
box – boxes
potato – potatoes
*When the singular noun ends in ( y) we change the ( y) for ( i) and then add ( es) to from the plural from . But do not change the( y) for ( ies) to from the plural when the singular noun ends in ( y) preceded by a vowel . For
study – studies
day – days
toy – toys
*However, there are many irregular nouns which do not from the plural in this way . For
Child – children
:- Noun Gender
Many English nouns would change from depending on their gender . For
Actor – Actress
Waiter – Waess
Types of Noun
Proper nouns :-
Are the names of specific people , or places , such as John , France . They usually begin with a capital letter .
Common nouns :-
Are general names such as person , mansion , and book .
Abstract nouns :-
Refer to ideas or qualities such as liberty and truth.
Countable nouns :-
Refer to thing which can be counted ( can be singular or plural .
Uncountable nouns :-
Refer to some groups of countable nouns , substances , feelings and types of activity ( can only be singular) .
Takes the place of a noun , to avoid repeating the noun .
He , she, it , you , they , we
Specifies an action or links the subject to a complement . Verbs can follow auxiliaries and models such as will, have , am , being , would, can , been . etc. The tense of a verb indicates the time when the action happened , past, present or future.
Take , is , go , fire
Modifies a noun or modified by the adverb very.
Useful , black skirt
English adjectives often take suffixes ( attached in the end ) .
ive ( indicative) , able ( readable) , ish ( childish) , some ( tiresome), ful
( wishful) , ly ( friendly) , less ( useless)
Adjectives have three degrees: Positive , comparative , and superlative
Old , older, oldest
Most adverbs in English are formed by adding – ly to an Adjective an adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb , and an adjective .
Adverb spelling notes
Adjectives ending -l still -ly ; careful- carefully
Adjectives ending -y still -ily ;lucky- luckily
Adverbs of manner
Modify a verb to describe the way the action is done.
She did the work carefully
Adverbs modifying adjectives
An adjective can be modified by an adverb , which precedes the adjective .
That’s really good
It was a very difficult time for all of us
It usually comes before a noun , pronoun or noun phrase . it joins the noun to some other part of sentence .
To , form , under , over , with , by , at , above , before , after , near , on , off, for, in , into , of , during , across , without , since , until.
Conjunctions are the words we use to link or join two or more sentences together or two words within the same sentence . The most common conjunctions in English are : and , but ,or , because , neither.. nor , either.
We eat at home and work in the office ( The conjunction "and" joins the sentences " we eat at home" with" we work in the office" ) .
It is an unusual kind of word , because it often stands alone . Interjections are words which express emotion or surprise , and they are usually followed by exclamation marks .
Ouch! , Hello! , Hurray! , Oh no! , Ha! , hey! , well! , OMG!, right! .
It contains a number of subcategories .
Deictic Articles :
This , That , These , Those
Every , some , most , all , each , any , no
( Cardinal) numeral :
One , two , three , four , etc
Possessive pronouns :
My , your , his , its , etc
Some wh- question words :
Which , whose
English has two types of articles : definite ( the ) and indefinite ( a , an ) The use of these articles depends on whether you are referring to any member of a group , or to a specific member of group :
Indefinite articles – a and an ( determiners )
A and An are the indefinite articles . They refer to something not specifically known to the person you are communicating with .
A and An are used before nouns that introduce something or someone you have not mentioned before
I ate an apple this morning
I bought a pet for my son
*You use an when the noun you are referring to begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u )
If the next word begins with a consonant sound when we say it , for example , "university" then we use a . If the next word begins with a vowel sound when we say it , for example , "hour" then we use an
Definite articles – the ( determiners )
You use the when you know that the listener knows what particular person/ thing you are talking a bout .
The dog ( that specific dog )
The apple (that specific apple)
*You should also use the when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking a bout .
She's got two children ; a girl and a boy . The girl is eight and the boy is fourteen .
*We use the to talk about geographical points on the globe .
The Middle East , the West
*We use the to talk about rivers , oceans and seas .
The Nile , the Pacific
*We also use the before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing .
The rain , the sun , the wind
*However if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use ( a , an ) .
" "There's a cold wind blowing / I could hear the wind""
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