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قديم 07-06-2012, 11:08 PM   #1

!!*ميوس*!!

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Parts of speech


Parts of speech

Parts of speech

To know for sure what part of speech a word is , we have to look not only at the word itself but also at its meaning ,position, and use in a sentence.

Nouns

Definition :-

A nouns is a word used to refer to people, animals ,s, substances, states, events and feelings. Nouns can be a subject or an of a verb ,

Can be modified by an adjective , can take an article or determiner , and follow a preposition.

Examples

In school

A white house

The dog

Table

Affixes :- Derivational

English nouns often take suffixes ( attached in the end ) .

Examples

Ment ( ment) , ation ( expectation) , hood ( neighborhood) , ism ( socialism)

:- Noun Plurals

The general rule is to add ( s ) to the noun in singular . for

Examples

Book – Books

Car – Cars

*When the singular noun ends in :- ( sh , ch , s , x , o ) we form their plural from by adding ( es ). For

Examples

sandwich – sandwiches

brush – brushes

bus – buses

box – boxes

potato – potatoes

*When the singular noun ends in ( y) we change the ( y) for ( i) and then add ( es) to from the plural from . But do not change the( y) for ( ies) to from the plural when the singular noun ends in ( y) preceded by a vowel . For

Examples

study – studies

day – days

toy – toys

*However, there are many irregular nouns which do not from the plural in this way . For

Examples

Woman– Women

Child – children

:- Noun Gender



Many English nouns would change from depending on their gender . For

Examples

Actor – Actress

Waiter – WaParts of speech To know for sure what part ofess

Types of Noun

Proper nouns :-

Are the names of specific people , or places , such as John , France . They usually begin with a capital letter .

Common nouns :-

Are general names such as person , mansion , and book .

Abstract nouns :-

Refer to ideas or qualities such as liberty and truth.

Countable nouns :-

Refer to thing which can be counted ( can be singular or plural .

Uncountable nouns :-

Refer to some groups of countable nouns , substances , feelings and types of activity ( can only be singular) .





pronouns

Definition :-

Takes the place of a noun , to avoid repeating the noun .

Examples

He , she, it , you , they , we

Verbs

Definition :-

Specifies an action or links the subject to a complement . Verbs can follow auxiliaries and models such as will, have , am , being , would, can , been . etc. The tense of a verb indicates the time when the action happened , past, present or future.

Examples

Take , is , go , fire

Adjective

Definition :-

Modifies a noun or modified by the adverb very.

Examples

Useful , black skirt

Very good

Affixes :-

English adjectives often take suffixes ( attached in the end ) .

Examples

ive ( indicative) , able ( readable) , ish ( childish) , some ( tiresome), ful

( wishful) , ly ( friendly) , less ( useless)

Adjectives have three degrees: Positive , comparative , and superlative

Examples

Old , older, oldest

Adverb

Definition :-

Most adverbs in English are formed by adding – ly to an Adjective an adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb , and an adjective .

Adverb spelling notes

Adjectives ending -l still -ly ; careful- carefully

Adjectives ending -y still -ily ;lucky- luckily

Adverbs of manner

Modify a verb to describe the way the action is done.

Examples

She did the work carefully

Adverbs modifying adjectives

An adjective can be modified by an adverb , which precedes the adjective .

Examples

That’s really good

It was a very difficult time for all of us

Prepositions

Definition :-

It usually comes before a noun , pronoun or noun phrase . it joins the noun to some other part of sentence .

Examples

To , form , under , over , with , by , at , above , before , after , near , on , off, for, in , into , of , during , across , without , since , until.

Conjunction

Definition :-

Conjunctions are the words we use to link or join two or more sentences together or two words within the same sentence . The most common conjunctions in English are : and , but ,or , because , neither.. nor , either.

Examples

We eat at home and work in the office ( The conjunction "and" joins the sentences " we eat at home" with" we work in the office" ) .

Interjections

Definition :-

It is an unusual kind of word , because it often stands alone . Interjections are words which express emotion or surprise , and they are usually followed by exclamation marks .

Examples

Ouch! , Hello! , Hurray! , Oh no! , Ha! , hey! , well! , OMG!, right! .

Determiners

It contains a number of subcategories .

Deictic Articles :

This , That , These , Those

Quantifiers :

Every , some , most , all , each , any , no

( Cardinal) numeral :

One , two , three , four , etc

Possessive pronouns :

My , your , his , its , etc

Some wh- question words :

Which , whose





Articles

Definition :-

English has two types of articles : definite ( the ) and indefinite ( a , an ) The use of these articles depends on whether you are referring to any member of a group , or to a specific member of group :

Indefinite articles – a and an ( determiners )

A and An are the indefinite articles . They refer to something not specifically known to the person you are communicating with .

A and An are used before nouns that introduce something or someone you have not mentioned before

Examples

I ate an apple this morning

I bought a pet for my son

*You use an when the noun you are referring to begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u )

Exception

If the next word begins with a consonant sound when we say it , for example , "university" then we use a . If the next word begins with a vowel sound when we say it , for example , "hour" then we use an

Definite articles – the ( determiners )

You use the when you know that the listener knows what particular person/ thing you are talking a bout .

Examples

The dog ( that specific dog )

The apple (that specific apple)

*You should also use the when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking a bout .

Examples

She's got two children ; a girl and a boy . The girl is eight and the boy is fourteen .

*We use the to talk about geographical points on the globe .

Examples

The Middle East , the West

*We use the to talk about rivers , oceans and seas .

Examples

The Nile , the Pacific

*We also use the before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing .

Examples

The rain , the sun , the wind

*However if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use ( a , an ) .

Examples

" "There's a cold wind blowing / I could hear the wind""




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الأسمآء غير المعدودة ~؛ ?What are Uncountable nouns



 
قديم 07-06-2012, 11:08 PM   #2

!!*ميوس*!!


رد: Parts of speech


Parts of speech

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